Dissemination is now acknowledged as an important component of the research process. Dissemination is about the communication of innovation, this being either a planned and systematic process or a passive, unplanned diffusion process. The utilization of research ﬁndings in policy or practice is in many instances a subtle and indirect process. Effective communication is an important aspect of dissemination.
However, because the audience is heterogeneous, dissemination has to meet the various requirements of different users. There are many barriers to effective communication between researchers and users. These include: career structures, institutional barriers, ownership issues, barriers relating to the protracted process of publishing in academic journals, technical barriers and problems related to secrecy and lack of trust.